History of Monaco
Principality of Monaco | Principaute de Monaco
Founded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa, Monaco has been ruled by the House of Grimaldi since 1297, when François Grimaldi, known as “Malizia” seized Monaco’s fortress in response to the exile imposed upon the Guelfs. For seven centuries the Grimaldi family has presided over the Principality of Monaco, the only exception to this was from 1789 to 1814, when Monaco was under French control. Designated as a protectorate of Sardinia from 1815 until 1860 by the Congress of Vienna, Monaco’s sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861.
The Principality at the Côte d’Azur has only one commune, Monaco, whose limits are the same as those of the state.
Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a Casino in Monte-Carlo.
On 11 April 1950 Prince Rainier officially became monarch, succeeding his grandfather Prince Louis II. With the marriage to U.S. actress Grace Kelly in 1956, Prince Rainier brought Hollywood glamor to his tiny Mediterranean state and put Monaco on the international stage. Since then, the principality’s mild climate, splendid scenery and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center and a haven for really rich people.
On 6 April 2005 Prince RAINIER III has died aged 81. Albert II (Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi; born 14 March 1958) is the reigning monarch of the Principality of Monaco and head of the princely house of Grimaldi. He is the son of Prince Rainier III and Grace, Princess of Monaco formerly Grace Kelly, the American actress. Prince Albert’s sisters are Caroline, Princess of Hanover, and Princess Stéphanie. In July 2011, Prince Albert married former South African swimmer Charlene Wittstock. On 10 December 2014, Prince Albert and Princess Charlene welcomed their first and second child, twins Gabriella Thérèse Marie and Jacques Honoré Rainier. The twins were born at Princess Grace Hospital in La Colle, Monaco. Jacques, as his father’s heir-apparent, bears the titles Hereditary Prince of Monaco and Marquis of Baux while Albert has granted Gabriella the title of Countess of Carladès.
Today about 38,400 people live in the principality on an area of just 2 km² making it the most densely populated city on earth
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